About Us









history of estrogen therapy

The History of Estrogen Therapy - A Cure for Hot Flashes, Insomnia, Vaginal Discomfort and More?

Hello, menopause! If you’re experiencing any of those symptoms, your doctor may have recommended some form of menopausal hormone therapy.

But is it safe?
When should you start?
And which therapy is right for you?

Researchers have been trying to answer those questions for decades, often with confusing and even conflicting results. Let’s take a look at the history of estrogen therapy, and how past studies are informing the latest recommendations.

A French physician coined the word ‘menopause’ in the 1800s and advanced the revolutionary idea that the health concerns of aging women deserved medical attention. Throughout that century, doctors experimented – sometimes on themselves – with various animal hormones. The science was far from perfected; but by the 1890s, women were being treated successfully for symptoms of menopause with a powder or pill made from cow ovaries.

In the U.S., doctors experimented with bio-identical estrogen replacement and developed a synthetic estrogen replacement in the 1930s. Usage surged over the next several decades, especially after a popular book suggested menopausal hormone replacement could keep women ‘feminine forever’.

The research surged at the same pace; but science couldn’t keep up with seemingly conflicting information, and the market followed its ups and downs. Estrogen was the fifth most prescribed drug in the country by the mid-70s after one study suggested it helped bone growth; but prescriptions plummeted and it earned an FDA warning after it was linked to a rise in endometrial cancer. Conflicting studies on other cancers and cardiovascular health followed, along with FDA investigations. Meanwhile, doctors formed their own opinions and passed them on to women who experienced a wide range of side effects and symptom relief.

Today, hormone therapy remains controversial, leaving many women hesitant to try it, yet suffering in silence from a variety of menopausal symptoms. But as the experts review fifty years of studies, here’s what they know for sure.

Truth takes time.

Many of the earlier studies have been criticized for poor selection of participants and controls; and repeated studies over five decades offer a much better understanding of what hormone therapy can and can’t do. Researchers now say it is still the most effective treatment for hot flashes, genito-urinary discomfort, and preventing bone loss. However, because research still proves inconclusive regarding cardiovascular, stroke, and cancer risks vs. benefits, it’s best used when symptoms impair quality of life, and at the lowest effective dosage.

When (and how long) you take it matters.

Menopausal hormone therapy is safest for women under 60 who begin it less than 10 years from the onset of menopause. The risk of cardiovascular issues, stroke, and dementia rise after that. Timing and duration appear to be related to breast cancer risks as well. For these reasons, estrogen therapy is recommended for short-term use.

Forget one size fits all therapy.

Pills or patches? Estrogen alone or combined with progesterone? How much and how long? Your symptoms and your risks should determine whether hormone therapy is right for you, and what your treatment plan should be. And follow up is critical during this season of change.

When prescribed carefully and used correctly, menopausal hormone therapy can be an effective way to ease symptoms and boost your sex life; but it doesn’t have to be the only way. Pelvic floory physical therapy works on the secondary effects of menopause - the pain you experience due to a drop in hormones. If hormones were the exclusive reason you are having painful intercourse, then adding hormones would be the cure.

But for many women, this is not the case. The musculoskeletal system becomes involved, and a Women's Health pelvic floor physical therapist is not only your advocate - it may just be your solution. Whether or not hormone therapy works for you, a consultation with a women’s health physical therapist to discuss physical therapy for menopause might be just what the doctor ordered!



Kohn G., Rodriguez K., Hotaling J., and Pastuszak A. 2019. The History Of Estrogen Therapy. Sexual Medicine Reviews 7:3 416-29.

What Our Patients Have to Say


Testimonial by R.S.

I wanted to thank you so much for helping me get through something I thought I may never be able to. We have achieved pain-free intercourse and this has really solidified our marriage. We are so grateful to you for all the work you do! Thank you!!

-- R.S.

Testimonial by R.D., age 38

"I had a severe tear during childbirth that was not stitched together correctly and therefore healed poorly. Even after having a surgery a year later to remove the scar tissue, I was still having pain, and no one could explain why -- there was no overt 'reason' to explain the pain. I had tried other 'specialists' and even saw another physical therapist who had me do hip / leg stretches -- what a joke! I was about to give up and just 'live with it' until thankfully I kept searching online and found Heather.

Read more: Testimonial by R.D., age 38

Testimonial by M.M.

A personal journey and testimonial from one of my patients:

My husband and I were married for 5 years before we were able to have intercourse due to my vaginismus. There was nothing traumatic in my past but for some reason, even though I wanted sex, I mentally avoided "that area" of my body and didn't even admit to myself that there was a problem for a long time, even though I was never able to put tampons in. Once I finally opened my eyes up to the fact that I had a problem, I had a surgery that was supposed to fix the issue.

Read more: Testimonial by M.M.

Testimonial by M.M.

My husband and I were married for 5 years and unable to have intercourse, but I never knew why. After numerous awful experiences at doctor’s offices (where many doctors told me I “just needed to relax”), a surgery that didn’t fix the problem, and a year of owning dilators that didn’t get me anywhere, someone finally referred me to Heather for Physical Therapy. I finally had answers and information from someone who knew exactly what I was dealing with!

Read more: Testimonial by M.M.

Testimonial by T.H.

I started seeing Heather in October 2014. For more than two years, I had been suffering from painful urinary tract infection type symptoms after my bartholins gland surgery which included constant burning and urinary frequency sensation that led to more and more painful intercourse. I had made multiple visits to internist, obgyn and urologist's offices, went through a range of treatment with UTI and bladder frequency medication that included antibiotics, vesicare, estrogen cream, but nothing worked.

Read more: Testimonial by T.H.

Testimonial by Jamie M.

I have been going to see Heather for a while now, and I can't tell you enough how much she has improved my quality of life. Heather specializes in issues like pelvic floor, but I see her for other orthopedic issues.

I have a lot of chronic joint pain and dysfunction issues (back, hips, neck) that require that have ongoing physical therapy maintenance. The effects of my problem joints/areas overlap and interconnect with each other in complex ways, so helping me requires really having a complete understanding of the entire skeletal and muscular system. Pain does not always appear where the problem actually is, the human body is a twisty, many-layered puzzle. I have an exercise program I do at home and I am very functional, but there are just something things I need a PT to help me out with.

Read more: Testimonial by Jamie M.

Subscribe To Our Newsletter

Get access to our free downloads and a 15% discount on Heather's book "Sex Without Pain"!
I agree with the Terms and Conditions and the Privacy policy