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Bladder Health Month and the Great American Smokeout - November 21st

In honor of both, today we are going to cover the damage that smoking nicotine products and tobacco use can do on the bladder.

Doctors have known for decades that smoking affects lung and heart health, greatly increasing risk of both lung cancer and heart disease. In recent research, they have been finding that smoking increases risk to various urologic diseases as well.

Bladder Cancer

Cigarette smoking triples the risk for bladder cancer when compared with the risk in nonsmokers, about 50% of bladder cancer in men and 20% in women can be attributable to smoking (Freedman, 2011). Cigarette smoke contains about 60 different carcinogens, and many of these are identifiable in the urine of smokers (Manatonski, 1981). Cigarette smoking is one of the largest risk factors we can control to prevent the development of bladder cancer in men and women.

Prostate Cancer

Although the cause of prostate cancer is not clear, some researchers believe it may be due to various factors including genetics, diet, inflammation, infectious agents, hormonal imbalance, or exposure to toxins like cigarette smoke (Dwivedi, 2012). A 2012 study by Dwivedi found that smoking increased inflammation in the prostate, increasing cancer risk and also making the disease more aggressive. The Johns Hopkins Medical center published in 2003 that cigarette smoking causes oxidative damage that could make prostate cancer worse for men who smoke vs. non smokers.

Kidney Cancer

Smoking tobacco is a risk in the development of cancer in the kidneys and ureters. A 2011 study in the UK estimated that 29% of cases in men and 15% in women were associated with or caused by smoking (Parkin, 2011). Kidney cancer risk also increases with the number of cigarettes you smoke a day as well as the amount of time you’ve been smoking. The risk of kidney cancer is 60% to 100% higher in the patients smoking 20 or more cigarettes daily compared with nonsmokers (Parkin, 2011). Fortunately in the same study, they found that quitting smoking, especially quitting for over 10 years had a measurable decrease in cancer risk.

Erectile Dysfunction


Smoking negatively affects your body’s vascular system and is tied to erectile dysfunction, since the penis relies on blood flow to reach full erection. The Olmsted County Study of Urinary Symptoms (Jacobsen, 1993) found that smokers had an increased incidence of erectile dysfunction vs nonsmokers, especially for men between the ages 40 and 79.

Kidney Stones


A 2013 study by Tamadon showed that smoking increased the risk of stone formation; 26.5% of the patients with stones were cigarette smokers, and only 14.9% in the control group were smokers. This shows a possible link between smoking and risk of kidney stone formation.

Incontinence

The nicotine in tobacco has been shown to irritate the muscle that controls the bladder (Wyman, Burgio, & Newman, 2009). Smokers are also likely to have a chronic cough which can create more pressure on the bladder and pelvic floor.

Infertility

Studies have shown smoking negatively affecting fertility in both men and women.
Soares (2008) found that compounds in tobacco disrupt the maturation of ovarian follicles as well as the uterine receptiveness to implantation. During pregnancy, smoking has been linked fetal growth retardation, fetal death, premature delivery, lactation problems, and long-term effects on the child (Mobley, 2015).


Cigarette smoking also reduces sperm production, increases oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Sperm from smokers have less ability to fertilize egg cells and embryos display lower implantation rates. It has also been found that exposure to tobacco compounds in the womb can lead to reduced sperm count in adult life (Soares, 2008).

Interstitial Cystitis

Tobacco can aggravate symptoms of Interstitial cystitis (IC) which includes painful bladder, increased urgency and frequency of urination, and pelvic pain. An Austrian study of 981 subjects, found that smokers with IC had the highest prevalence of more severe symptoms. Visit the National Kidney Foundation for more info.

How to Stop Smoking

For more information on smoking cessation check out the following online resource in addition to consulting with your doctor:

 

Resources


Mobley, D., & Baum, N. (2015). Smoking: Its Impact on Urologic Health. Reviews in urology, 17(4), 220–225.

Manatonski GM, Elliott EA. Bladder cancer epidemiology. Epidemiol Rev. 1981;3:203–229. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Freedman ND, Silverman DT, Hollenbeck AR, et al. Association between smoking and risk of bladder cancer among men and women. JAMA. 2011;306:737–745. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Dwivedi S, Goel A, Mandhani A, et al. Tobacco exposure may enhance inflammation in prostate cancer patients: an exploratory study in north Indian population. Toxicol Int. 2012;19:310–318. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

  1. Prostate cancer is worse in men who smoke. Prostate Cancer Update. [Accessed October 21, 2015]. The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute website. https://urology.jhu.edu/newsletter/prostate_cancer612.php.
  1. Parkin DM. 2. Tobacco-attributable cancer burden in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer. 2011;195(suppl 2):S6–S13. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Jacobsen SJ, Guess HA, Panser L, et al. A populationbased study of health-care seeking behavior for treatment of urinary symptoms. The Olmsted County Study of Urinary Symptoms and Health Status Among Men. Arch Fam Med. 1993;2:729–735. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Tamadon MR, Nassaii M, Ghorbani R. Cigarette smoking and nephrolithiasis in adult individuals. Nephrourol Mon. 2013;5:702–705. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Wyman, J. F., Burgio, K. L., & Newman, D. K. (2009). Practical aspects of lifestyle modifications and behavioural interventions in the treatment of overactive bladder and urgency urinary incontinence. International journal of clinical practice, 63(8), 1177–1191. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02078.x

Soares, S. R., & Melo, M. A. (2008). Cigarette smoking and reproductive function. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 20(3), 281–291. doi:10.1097/gco.0b013e3282fc9c1e

International Urogynecological Association., authors Interstitial Cystitis & Painful Bladder Syndrome: A Guide for Women. Washington, DC: International Urogynecoligal Association; 2011. []

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Testimonial by R.D., age 38

"I had a severe tear during childbirth that was not stitched together correctly and therefore healed poorly. Even after having a surgery a year later to remove the scar tissue, I was still having pain, and no one could explain why -- there was no overt 'reason' to explain the pain. I had tried other 'specialists' and even saw another physical therapist who had me do hip / leg stretches -- what a joke! I was about to give up and just 'live with it' until thankfully I kept searching online and found Heather.

Read more: Testimonial by R.D., age 38

Testimonial by A.M.

Months after giving birth, it was difficult for me to go from a sitting or lying position up to a full standing position without feeling that I had to remain hunched over until a bit of time had passed to get fully upright. However, after taking Heather’s course, I learned exercises to get my body back to normal. She also showed me correct ways to lift and carry my son as well as put him in/take him out of the carseat and stroller. This class was really beneficial and Heather is a wonderful teacher who made me feel very comfortable.

-- A.M.

Testimonial by S.H., age 24

I just wanted to thank you for everything you've done for me for the past 19 months. I literally could not have reached my goals without you and your practice. You gave me the courage to keep moving forth with my treatment no matter how afraid and anxious I was. You were always there to answer questions and made this whole process so much easier than I expected it to be.

It's because of you that my marriage is on the right track, that I can get pregnant and that this part of my life is finally over. I really feel that Fusion Wellness is a team of people you can call family and are there to root for you and cheer you on until you reach your goals. There is nothing better than knowing I accomplished this with you guys by my side and as calmly and patiently as I needed. Thank you from the bottom of my heart for always being there and helping me reach my goals.

S.H., age 24

Testimonial by S.H., age 24

I just wanted to thank you for everything you've done for me for the past 19 months. I literally could not have reached my goals without you and your practice. You gave me the courage to keep moving forth with my treatment no matter how afraid and anxious I was. You were always there to answer questions and made this whole process so much easier than I expected it to be.

It's because of you that my marriage is on the right track, that I can get pregnant and that this part of my life is finally over. I really feel that Fusion Wellness is a team of people you can call family and are there to root for you and cheer you on until you reach your goals. There is nothing better than knowing I accomplished this with you guys by my side and as calmly and patiently as I needed. Thank you from the bottom of my heart for always being there and helping me reach my goals.

S.H., age 24

Testimonial by A.W., age 32

I wanted to let you know that my pelvic floor held strong and gave me no trouble whatsoever in my trail race this morning (12 miles)! In a way, I felt like I ran better than ever because my core feels so rock solid from all the exercises you have me doing. That was especially valuable on the technical downhill - I just flew down the trail because I had confidence in my balance and form. Thank you for helping me get back to doing what I love.

-- A.W., age 32
(completed Post-partum Renewal Program using the InTone biofeedback/stim unit)

Testimonial by Mary L.

I started seeing Heather to treat my Interstitial Cystitis in November 2016. At this time, I was extremely miserable, in constant pain, and felt as though no one was listening or understood what was going on with my body. I have just finished my last appointment and I can honestly say that my life has completely changed for the better because of Heather and her team of PTs! I live almost completely pain free, and when I do have flare ups, I am able to treat them at home on my own. I am so grateful that this office was recommended to me a honestly cannot recommend them enough!

Read more: Testimonial by Mary L.

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